There is no perspective in the depictions, as understood from the few remains that survived today. The scenes were developed by arranging them side by side or on top of each other, as in the miniature style. The main characters such as Jesus,Virgin Mary and the apostles were depicted larger than the other figures. The figures outlined by black and brown contours and pastel colours, mainly shades of blue were used.
Gospel and Visiting Hours
In this scene, Virgin Mary is sitting on a throne with a high backrest that is decorated with geometrical motifs. The figure with a halo over its head is depicted from the front. Dressed in black maphorion over brown chiton. Virgin Mary is round-faced with big eyes and black hair. Her hands are spread to both sides.
On the left side of Mary, there is an angel who tells her that she will have a child. (Fig.154).The angel with a halo is depicted in a standing position. The long brown hair of the black-winged angel falls on his shoulders. The angel is pointing to Mary with his right hand.
Some details cannot be distinguished as the scene is extremely damaged.
Archangel Gabriel is sent to the mother of Jesus, Mary by God, to herald arrival of the Saviour. This event is told in the Christian art with the gospel scene. The scene originates from the Bible. The event is described in the Gospel of Lukeas follows:
“In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to the city of Nazareth in theGalilee to a girl who was engaged to a man named Joseph from the house ofDavid; her name was Mary. The angel came near him and said, Greetings, O the girl who is blessed, the Lord is with you. And Mary is very surprised by these words: and thought what kind of greeting this might be. The angel said to her:Don't be afraid, Mary; for you have found favour with God. You will conceive and give birth to a son, and you will name him Jesus. He will be great; he will be called the son of Almighty God; The Lord God will give him the throne ofDavid ... And Mary said to the angel: How will this be? Because I know no men.The angel answered and said to her, the Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Almighty will overshadow you, the holy one to be born in this will be called the son of God... “ (Luke 1:26- 35).
In the scene, Gabriel's announcement to Mary that she will have a child is depicted in accordance with the Bible narrative. The spread hands of Mary express her astonishment over the things told to her by the angel.
Depiction of Mary on a throne is also seen in the scene of Mary, the Mother of God, on the southern outer wall of the church. In both scenes, Mary is depicted from the front, with a round-face and big eyes, sitting on a throne decorated with geometrical motifs.
The resurrection of Lazarus and the entrance to Jerusalem
Jesus and the apostles are depicted at the grave of Lazarus. Lazarus is wrapped in the shroud inside a rectangular coffin. Behind the tomb there are Mary and Martha(Fig. 158).
In this scene, the resurrection of Mary and Martha's brother, Lazarus of Bethany, by Jesus is described.
When Jesus hears that Lazarus is ill, Jesus goes to see him. However, Lazarus is dead beforeJesus arrives. The incident is described in the Gospel of John as follows:
When Mary came to the place where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said to him: O Lord, if you were here, my brother would not have died. When Jesus saw her weeping and the Jews who had come along with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in spirit and his heart was troubled, and he said: Where did you lay him?...”(John 11: 33- 34). Jesus immediately went to the grave. And he asked them to remove the stone in front of the grave. They lifted the stone. Jesus raised his eyes to heaven. He prayed to God;
“... and called in a loud voice, Lazarus come out! And the dead came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips and with a cloth around his face. Jesus said to them: unwrap him and let him go”(John 11: 42-44).
In this scene, Jesus is at the grave of Lazarus. Lazarus is seen as wrapped in a shroud. But; his eyes are open as if his resurrection is being expressed.
The scene consists of two parts, the lower part where Jesus appears with his apostles, and the upper part where he leaves them and ascends into the sky. In the lower part of the scene, there is Jesus in the middle and the apostles lined up side by side. This part is extremely damaged. Only the upper part of the figures 'bodies could be preserved (Fig. 159).
In the upper part with a blue background, Jesus, who is sitting on the medallion is ascending to heaven by four flying angels. Jesus is holding the Bible in his right hand and makes a blessing gesture with his left hand. The apostles in the lower part are looking at Jesus in astonishment as he ascends into the sky in the medallion.
In the Bible, this scene is described as follows: After Jesus appeared to his disciples, he took them to Bethany and blessed them. And while he was blessing them, he left them and a scended to the sky (Luke 24: 50-51).
“.... He was taken up before their very eyes and a cloud hid him from their sight. And as he was going, while they were looking intently up into the sky, two men dressed in white stood there beside them and said: O Men of Galilee, why do you keep looking into the sky?
This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven” (Acts 1: 9-11)
In the scene, as in the biblical descriptions, Jesus is first portrayed with his apostles. Then he ascends into the sky away from them, in a medallion carried by the angels, the apostles watch this incident in amazement.
Change of appearance (transfiguration)
There are three apostles in front of the scene, in front of a rocky hill. In the background of the scene, Jesus holding the Bible in his left hand and ProphetMoses holding the tablets of the “Ten Commandments” in his right hand andProphet Elijah to his left are depicted (Fig. 161). Jesus stands on a round mandora.
This biblical scene is set out in the Gospels of Matthew (17: 1-8) and Mark.
This incident is described in the Gospel of Mark as follows:
“Jesus took Peter, Jacob and John with him six days later, and led them up on a high mountain, where they were alone, and transfigured before them... Elijah and Moses appeared before them and they were talking to Jesus...”
It’s possible to sense the expressions of astonishment and fear on the faces of the three apostles depicted in the front of the scene. The reason for this expression is associated to the following text in the Bible:
“... And Peter answered Jesus and said: Lord, it is good for us to be here; let us put up three shelters, one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. Because he didn't know how to answer; for they were so frightened. ” (Mark 9: 5-6).
Crucifixion and holy women in the grave scene
In this scene, the body of Jesus is still upright, in a long, sleeveless black dress, but his head is slightly bent forward, and his eyes are closed. Above his head is the half circle that symbolize heaven and on each side a rosettere presenting the sun and the moon. Next to Jesus there are two thieves and pikemen. Mary, Apostle John and one of the holy women are depicted near the rocky mountain where the crucifix was lifted. Next to the crucifix is the sponge carrier and vinegar container. The scene is extremely damaged.
The scene of the crucifixion of Jesus differs among the narratives of the Gospels.According to the Gospel of John, Jesus carried his cross himself and was taken to the place called Gollgota, which means Skull, and was crucified with two her people there.
“Pilate wrote a notice and put it on the cross: It read, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews. ... When the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and divided them into four shares for each soldier... Near the cross of Jesus stood his mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clop as and Mary Magdalene. And when Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved, standing nearby, he said to his mother: Woman, here is your son! Then he said to the disciple: Here is your mother! ... Later, knowing that everything had now been finished, and so that scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said: I am thirsty. There was a container filled with vinegar; they soaked the sponge in vinegar and attach edit on the stick and gave it to his mouth. When Jesus took the vinegar, he said:It’s finished and bowed his head and gave up his spirit. ” (John 19: 19-30)
Matthew writes that the two people crucified together with the Christ were thieves. (Matthew 27: 38-44).According to Matthew and Mark, the Christ said, ‘My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?’ as he was in agony.
Accompanied by two angels as he is holding the cross, Jesus bends slightly to hold Adam's hand. Eve is standing behind Adam. The scene is substantially damaged. Two rows of heads on the upper part of Adam and Eve are barely visible.
Anastasisi s a Greek word that means resurrection. In the art of Eastern Christianity, it is used to indicate Jesus resurrecting his ancestors.
In the Christian literature, anastasis, or the incident of Jesus descending to the real mof the dead to rescue the prophets before him and righteous people is not directly included in the Gospels. It is seen that the story told in the Gospel of Nicodemus appears in the apostolic texts of the Bible as hints (Akyürek 1996: 100). For example, in the letter Saint Paul wrote to the Ephesians (4:9), there is the statement: “and if it does not mean that he descended to the lower parts of the earth, what does this ascension mean?”
In the anastasis scene, two angels accompany the figure of Jesus who is in the centre.The cross that Jesus holds is a symbol of his authority and sovereignty, as well as a symbol of his victory over death, or as a weapon he used in his attack on Hades.
Adam and Eve are figures included in the scene from the early period.
Jesus appears to Maria Magdalena
On the side of this scene, there is a long inscription with names. This inscription is the only inscription in the church, consisting of names and text. In the first line of the inscription, the words “with faith” and “remembering” can be distinguished. In the second line, the first three letters of the word, “Gag”can be read.
Jesus, standing on the right side of the scene, extends his arms to Maria Magdalena who is kneeling in front of him. Behind Magdalena a bearded man is seen. This view isac companied by a long inscription.
The first person that Jesus appeared to after he died was Mary Magdalene. The incident is described in John (20: 13-18) as follows.
“After saying this, she turned and saw Jesus standing there; and did not know that it was Jesus ... Jesus said to her, Mary! And she turned to him, said, Rabboni, inAramaic, which means Teacher. Jesus said to her: Don't touch me; because I have not yet ascended to the Father. But go to my brothers, and tell them: I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my and your God ... ”(John 20:14-18)